top of page
A1 beta casein & beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM-7)

For clarification purposes, the articles for Beta-Casomorphin 7 have been divided into two categories.

Production & Absorption of BCM-7

Unravelled facets of milk derived opioid peptides: a focus on gut physiology, fractures and obesity.

Aslam H, Ruusunen A, Berk M, Loughman A, Rivera L, Pasco JA, et al. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2020;71(1):36-49.


Degradation of β-casomorphin-7 through in vitro gastrointestinal and jejunal brush border membrane digestion.

Asledottir T, Picariello G, Mamone G, Ferranti P, Røseth A, Devold TG, et al.J Dairy Sci. 2019;102(10):8622-9.

Release of β-casomorphin-7 from bovine milk of different β-casein variants after ex vivo gastrointestinal digestion. 

Asledottir T, Le TT, Poulsen NA, Devold TG, Larsen LB, Vegarud GE. International dairy journal. 2018;81:8-11.

Identification of bioactive peptides and quantification of β-casomorphin-7 from bovine β-casein A1, A2 and I after ex vivo gastrointestinal digestion.

Asledottir T, Le TT, Petrat-Melin B, Devold TG, Larsen LB, Vegarud GE. International Dairy Journal. 2017;71:98-106.

The effect of endurance exercise on intestinal integrity in well-trained healthy men.

JanssenDuijghuijsen LM, Mensink M, Lenaerts K, Fiedorowicz E; Protégé study group, van Dartel DA, Mes JJ, Luiking YC, Keijer J, Wichers HJ, Witkamp RF, van Norren K.

Physiol Rep. 2016 Oct;4(20).


Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of β-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.

Deth R, Clarke A, Ni J, Trivedi M. Nutr J. 2016 Sep 29;15(1):82.


Glucose and calcium ions may modulate the efficiency of bovine β-casomorphin-7 permeability through a monolayer of Caco-2 cells.
Jarmołowska B, Teodorowicz M, Fiedorowicz E, Sienkiewicz-Szłapka E, Matysiewicz M, Kostyra E. Peptides. 2013 Nov;49:59-67.

Sequential release of milk protein-derived bioactive peptides in the jejunum in healthy humans.
Boutrou R, Gaudichon C, Dupont D, Jardin J, Airinei G, Marsset-Baglieri A, Benamouzig R, Tomé D, Leonil J. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Jun;97(6):1314-23.

Enzymatic release of neocasomorphin and beta-casomorphin from bovine beta-casein.
Jinsmaa, Y & Yoshikawa, M. (1999). Peptides V20(8), pp 957-962.

ß-Casomorphin Induces Fos-Like Immunoreactivity in Discrete Brain Regions Relevant to Schizophrenia and Autism.
Sun Z, Cade JR, Fregly MJ, Privette RM. Autism. 1999;3(1):67-83.

Casein peptide release and passage to the blood in humans during digestion of milk or yogurt
Chabance B, Marteau P, Rambaud JC, Migliore-Samour D, Boynard M, Perrotin P, Guillot R, Jolles P, Fiat AM 1998.. Biochimie 80(2), pp 155-165.

beta-Casomorphin-immunoreactivity in the brain stem of the human infant.
Pasi A, Mahler H, Lansel N, Bernasconi C, Messiha FS.1993 Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 80(3):305-22.

In vitro penetration of des-tyrosine1-D-phenylalanine3-beta-casomorphin across the blood-brain barrier.
Stark H, Van Bree JB, de Boer AG, Jaehde U, Breimer DD. (1992) Peptides. 13(1):47-51.

Saturable transport of peptides across the blood-brain barrier.
Banks WA, Kastin AJ. (1987) Life Sci. 41(11):1319-38.

Demonstration of beta-casomorphin immunoreactive materials in in vitro digests of bovine milk and in small intestine contents after bovine milk ingestion in adult humans.
Svedberg J, de Haas J, Leimenstoll G, Paul F, Teschemacher H. Peptides. 1985 Sep-Oct;6(5):825-30.

Demonstration of a beta-casomorphin immunoreactive material in the plasma of newborn calves after milk intake.
Umbach M, Teschemacher H, Praetorius K, Hirschhauser R, Bostedt H. 1985. Regul Pept. Nov 7;12(3):223- 30.

Biological Activity of BCM-7

Gastrointestinal Effects

Milk Containing A2 β-Casein ONLY, as a Single Meal, Causes Fewer Symptoms of Lactose Intolerance than Milk Containing A1 and A2 β-Caseins in Subjects with Lactose Maldigestion and Intolerance: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial.

Ramakrishnan M, Eaton TK, Sermet OM, Savaiano DA. Nutrients. 2020;12(12):3855.

Comparison of the impact of bovine milk β-casein variants on digestive comfort in females self-reporting dairy intolerance: a randomized controlled trial.

Milan AM, Shrestha A, Karlström HJ, Martinsson JA, Nilsson NJ, Perry JK, et al. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2020;111(1):149-60.

A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Impact of Bovine Milk Containing Different Beta-Casein Profiles on Gut Health of Ageing Mice.

Guantario B, Giribaldi M, Devirgiliis C, Finamore A, Colombino E, Capucchio MT, et al.Nutrients. 2020;12(7).

Effects of Conventional Milk Versus Milk Containing Only A2 β-Casein on Digestion in Chinese Children: A Randomized Study.

Sheng X, Li Z, Ni J, Yelland G.J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;69(3):375-82.

Comparative effects of A1 versus A2 beta-casein on gastrointestinal measures: a blinded randomised cross-over pilot study.
Ho S, Woodford K, Kukuljan S, Pal S. (2014) Eur J Clin Nutr. 68(9):994-1000

Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences. MS, Shah JS, Al-Mughairy S, Hodgson NW, Simms B, Trooskens GA, Van Criekinge W, Deth RC. (2014) J Nutr Biochem. 25(10):1011-8.

Consumption of β-casomorphins-7/5 induce inflammatory immune response in mice gut through Th2 pathway
Ul Haq VM., Kapila R, Saliganti V. (2014) Journal of Functional Foods 8:150–160

Dietary A1 β-casein affects gastrointestinal transit time, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 activity, and inflammatory status relative to A2 β-casein in Wistar rats.
Barnett MP, McNabb WC, Roy NC, Woodford KB, Clarke AJ. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2014 Mar 20

Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut.
Haq MR, Kapila R, Sharma R, Saliganti V, Kapila S. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Oct 29.

A pilot study to evaluate nutritional influences on gastrointestinal symptoms and behavior patterns in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Harris C, Card B. Complement Ther Med. 2012 Dec;20(6):437-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2012.08.004. Epub 2012 Sep 19.

Food-derived peptides stimulate mucin secretion and gene expression in intestinal cells.
Martínez-Maqueda D, Miralles B, De Pascual-Teresa S, Reverón I, Muñoz R, Recio I. J Agric Food Chem. 2012 Sep 5;60(35):8600-5. 

Beta-casomorphin-7 regulates the secretion and expression of gastrointestinal mucins through a mu-opioid pathway.
Zoghbi S, Trompette A, Claustre J, El Homsi M, Garzon J, Jourdain G, Scoazec J,Plaisancie P. 2006. American Journal of Physiology.Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 290:G1105–G1113.

Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum
Trompette A, Claustre J, Caillon F, Jourdan G, Chayvialle JA, Plaisancié P. (2003) J Nutr. Nov;133(11):3499-503.

Effects of peptides derived from dietary proteins on mucus secretion in rat jejunum.
Claustre J, Toumi F, Trompette A, Jourdan G, Guignard H, Chayvialle JA, Plaisancié P. (2002) Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 3(3):G521-8.

Inhibition of small intestine motility by casein: a role of beta casomorphins?
Defilippi C, Gomez E, Charlin V, Silva C. 1995. Nutrition 119(6):751–754.

Treatment of acute secretory diarrhea with casein: an effect of beta-casomorphins?][Article in Spanish]
Charlin V, Defilippi C, Vargas V, Borghesi L, Gómez E. (1992) Rev Med Chil. 20(6):666-9.

Effects of beta-casomorphin derivatives on gastrointestinal transit in mice.
Becker A, Hempel G, Greksch G, Matthies H. (1990) Biomedica Biochimica Acta 49(110):1203–1207.

Effects on Immune Cell and Function


Oral Feeding of Cow Milk Containing A1 Variant of β Casein Induces Pulmonary Inflammation in Male Balb/c Mice.

Yadav S, Yadav NDS, Gheware A, Kulshreshtha A, Sharma P, Singh VP. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):8053.

Effects of Conventional Milk Versus Milk Containing Only A2 β-Casein on Digestion in Chinese Children: A Randomized Study.

Sheng X, Li Z, Ni J, Yelland G. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2019;69(3):375-82.

β-Casomorphin-7 alters μ-opioid receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase IV genes expression in children with atopic dermatitis.
Fiedorowicz E, Kaczmarski M, Cieślińska A, Sienkiewicz-Szłapka E, Jarmołowska B, Chwała B, Kostyra E.(2014) Peptides.

Immunoglobulin E epitope mapping by microarray immunoassay reveals differences in immune response to genetic variants of caseins from different ruminant species.
Lisson M, Novak N, Erhardt G. J Dairy Sci. 2014 Apr;97(4):1939-54.


Enhanced levels of immunoreactive β-casomorphin-8 in milk of breastfeeding women with mastitis.
Righard L, Carlsson-Jonsson A, Nyberg F. Peptides. 2014 Jan;51:54-8.


Comparative evaluation of cow β-casein variants (A1/A2) consumption on Th2-mediated inflammatory response in mouse gut.
Haq MR, Kapila R, Sharma R, Saliganti V, Kapila S. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Oct 29


The influence of μ-opioid receptor agonist and antagonist peptides on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Fiedorowicz E, Jarmołowska B, Iwan M, Kostyra E, Obuchowicz R, Obuchowicz M. Peptides. 2011 Apr;32(4):707-12. 


The effects of Casomorphine-7 on NOD mouse macrophage oxidation and primary immune response
American Diabetes Association 58th Annual Meeting and Scientific Session, Chicago 1998

Stimulation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by bioactive peptides derived from bovine milk proteins.
Kayser H, Meisel H. FEBS Lett. 1996 Mar 25;383(1-2):18-20.

Pseudoallergic skin reactions to opiate sequences of bovine casein in healthy children
Kurek M, Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Doroszewska G. 1995.. Rocz Akad Med Bialymst. 40(3):480-5.  
A naturally occurring opioid peptide from cow's milk, beta casomorphine-7, is a direct histamine releaser in man.
Kurek M, Przybilla B, Hermann K, Ring J. 1992.. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 97(2):115-20. 
Respiratory Effects  
A novel bioactive peptide from yoghurts modulates expression of the gel-forming MUC2 mucin as well as population of goblet cells and Paneth cells along the small intestine.
Plaisancié P, Claustre J, Estienne M, Henry G, Boutrou R, Paquet A, Léonil J. J Nutr Biochem. 2013 Jan;24(1):213-21.


The exogenous opioid peptides and DPPIV serum activity in infants with apnoea expressed as apparent life threatening events (ALTE).
Wasilewska J, Sienkiewicz-Szłapka E, Kuźbida E, Jarmołowska B, Kaczmarski M, Kostyra E. Neuropeptides. 2011 Jun;45(3):189-95


Relation of beta-casomorphin to Apnea in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Sun Z, Zhang Z, Wang X, Cade R, Elmir Z, Fregly M. 2003.. Peptides 24(6):937-943.


Does milk increase mucus production?
Bartley J, McGlashan SR. Med Hypotheses. 2010 Apr;74(4):732-4.


Effect of beta-casomorphin on neonatal sleep in rats.
Taira T, Hilakivi LA, Aalto J, Hilakivi I. 1990. Peptides 11(1):1–4.


beta-Casomorphins induce apnea and irregular breathing in adult rats and newborn rabbits.
Hedner J, Hedner T. 1987 Life Sci 41(20):2303-12.
Behavioral & Endocrinological Effects

Autistic children display elevated urine levels of bovine casomorphin-7 immunoreactivity.
Sokolov O1, Kost N2, Andreeva O2, Korneeva E3, Meshavkin V2, Tarakanova Y2, Dadayan A4, Zolotarev Y4, Grachev S5, Mikheeva I3, Varlamov O6, Zozulya A2.(2014) Peptides. 56:68-71.


Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.
Trivedi MS, Shah JS, Al-Mughairy S, Hodgson NW, Simms B, Trooskens GA, Van Criekinge W, Deth RC. (2014) J Nutr Biochem. 25(10):1011-8.


Data mining the ScanBrit study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders: Behavioural and psychometric measures of dietary response.
Pedersen L, Parlar S, Kvist K, Whiteley P, Shattock P. Nutr Neurosci. 2013 Nov 26.


Effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: based on parental report.
Pennesi CM, Klein LC.Nutr Neurosci. 2012 Mar;15(2):85-91.


Delayed behavioral effects of beta-casomorphin-7 depend on age and gender of albino rat pups.
Dubynin VA, Malinovskaya IV, Ivleva YA, Andreeva LA, Kamenskii AA, Ashmarin, IP 2000. . Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 130(11), pp1031-1034.


Effectiveness of nutritional interventions on the functioning of children with ADHD and/or ASD. An updated review of research evidence.
Martí LF.Bol Asoc Med P R. 2010 Oct-Dec;102(4):31-42. Review.


The ScanBrit randomised, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten- and casein-freedietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders.
Whiteley P, Haracopos D, Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, Parlar S, Jacobsen J, Seim A, Pedersen L, Schondel M, Shattock P. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Apr;13(2):87-100.


[Naloxone-induced suppression of the behavioral manifestation of serotoninergic system hyperactivation by beta-casomorphins-7 in mice].
Zozulia AA, Meshavkin VK, Sokolov OIu, Kost NV. Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2009 Mar-Apr;72(2):3-5. (Russian)


Effects of intra-abomasal infusion of beta-casomorphins on circulating concentrations of hyperglycaemic insulin and glucose in dairy cows.
Kim TG, Choung JJ, Wallace RJ, Chamberlain DG. 1: Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2000 Nov;127(3):249-57.

Rotational behaviour produced by intranigral injections of bovine and human beta-casomorphins in rats.
Herrera-Marschitz M, Terenius L, Grehn L, Ungerstedt U.. 1989. Psychopharmacology (Berl).99(3):357-61


Casein, a prohormone with an immunomodulating role for the newborn?
Migliore-Samour D, Jolles P. Experientia. 1988 Mar 15;44(3):188-93. Review.

Casomorphins reduce separation distress in chicks.
Panksepp J, Normansell L, Siviy S, Rossi J 3rd, Zolovick AJ.1984 Peptides 5(4):829-31

Effect of beta-casomorphins and analogs on insulin release in dogs.
Schusdziarra V, Schick A, de la Fuente A, Specht J, Klier M, Brantl V, Pfeiffer EF. 1: Endocrinology. 1983 Mar;112(3):885-9.

Effect of beta-casomorphins on somatostatin release in dogs.
Schusdziarra V, Schick R, de la Fuente A, Holland A, Brantl V, Pfeiffer EF. (1983) Endocrinology. Jun;112(6):1948-51.




bottom of page