top of page
Childhood "Type 1" diabetes
Epidemiological (Population) Studies

The protective effects of human milk-derived peptides on the pancreatic islet biology.

Singh A, Enjapoori AK, Gibert Y, Dwyer KM. Biol Open. 2020;9(8).

Milk A1 and A2 peptides and diabetes.
Clemens RA. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program. 2011;67:187-95. doi: 10.1159/000325584.

Lower consumption of cow milk protein A1 beta-casein at 2 years of age, rather than consumption among 11- to 14-year-old adolescents, may explain the lower rate of type 1 diabetes in Iceland than in Scandinavia.
Birgisdottir BE, Hill JP, Thorsson AV, Thorsdottir I. (2006) Ann Nutr Metab. 50(3):177-83.

Ischaemic heart disease, Type 1 diabetes, and cow milk A1 beta-casein
Laugesen M & Elliott R, 2003. New Zealand Medical Journal 116(1168) U295.

Variation in consumption of cow milk proteins and lower rate of Type 1 diabetes in Iceland versus the other 4 Nordic countries..
Birgisdottir BE, Hill JP, Harris DP, Thorsdottir I. 2002. Diabetes Nutr. Metab. 15 (4) 240-245


Different beta-casein fractions in Icelandic versus Scandinavian cow's milk may influence diabetogenicity of cow's milk in infancy and explain low rate of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Iceland. 
Thorsdottir I, Birgisdottir BE, Johannsdottir IM, Harris DP, Hill J, Steingrimsdottir L, Thorsson A (2000) Pediatrics 106(4):719-24.


Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and cow milk: casein variant consumption.
Elliott RB, Harris DP, Hill JP, Bibby NJ, Wasmuth HE. 1999.. Diabetologia 42 (3)292-296.

b-casein A1 consumption and incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Germany. 
Wasmuth, H.E., Rosenbauer, J., Elliott, RB., Mclachlan, C., Erhardt, G., Giani, G., Kolb, H.: Kongress der Europäischen Diabetesgesellschaft vom 28.-30.09.1999 in Brüssel/Belgien (Conference Presentation)

Human Studies

Antibodies to bovine beta-casein in diabetes and other autoimmune diseases.
Monetini L, Cavallo MG, Manfrini S, Stefanini L, Picarelli A, Di Tola M, Petrone A, Bianchi M, La Presa M, Di Giulio C, Baroni MG, Thorpe R, Walker BK, Pozzilli P (2002). Horm Metab Res. 34 (8) 455-9.

Bovine beta-casein antibodies in breast- and bottle-fed infants: their relevance in Type 1 diabetes.
Monetini L, Cavallo MG, Stefanini L, Ferrazzoli F, Bizzarri C, Marietti G, Curro V, Cervoni M, Pozzilli (2001) P. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 17(1):51-4


[The significance of A1 and A2 antibodies against beta-casein in type-1 diabetes mellitus].
Padberg S, Schumm-Draeger PM, Petzoldt R, Becker F, Federlin K. 1999. (Article in German.) Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 124 (50) 1518-21.

Beta-casein in cow’s milk: A major antigenic determinant for type 1 diabetes?
Pozzilli P. 1999. Journal of Endocrinological Investigations 22 (7) 562-567

Immunosuppressing effects of cow milk beta casomorphin in prediabetic mice and humans
R.B. Elliott, H. Wasmuth and J. Hill. (1997) 16th IDF Congress, Helsinki.

Animal Studies and Mechanistic Support

The effects of Casomorphin-7 on NOD mouse macrophage oxidation and primary immune response
American Diabetes Association 58th Annual Meeting and Scientific Session, Chicago 1998

The role of ß-casein variants in the induction of insulin-dependent diabetes in the non-obese diabetic mouse and humans.
Elliott RB, Wasmuth HE, Bibby NJ, Hill JP: Seminar on milk protein polymorphism, IDF special issue no. 9702. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, 445–453, 1997

Influence of b-casomorphins on the function of the endocrine pancreas: ß-Casomorphins and Related Peptides: Recent Developments.
Zuhlke H. Damert A. Eckhardt W. Hubner G. Kauschke R. Salazar R. Neubert K. (Brantl V. and Teschemacher H., eds.) VCH, Weinheim, 1994,, p161-169.

bottom of page