Heart disease & cardiovascular disease
Epidemiological (Population) Studies

Ischaemic heart disease, Type 1 diabetes, and cow milk A1 beta-casein.
Laugesen M & Elliott R, 2003. New Zealand Medical Journal 116(1168) U295.

beta-casein A1, ischaemic heart disease mortality, and other illnesses.
McLachlan, C. N. S. 2001. Medical Hypotheses. 56(2): 262-272

Human Studies

Effect of dietary supplementation with beta-casein A1 or A2 on markers of disease development in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
Chin-Dusting J, Shennan J, Jones E, Williams C, Kingwell B, Dart A. (2006) Br J Nutr. 95(1):136-44

A comparison of the effects of A1 and A2 beta-casein protein variants on blood cholesterol concentrations in New Zealand adults.
Venn BJ, Skeaff CM, Brown R, Mann JI, Green TJ. (2006). Atherosclerosis. 188(1):175-8. Epub 2005 Nov 18.

Significant increase in antibodies against oxidized LDL particles (Igox LDL) in three-month old infants who received milk formula.
Steinerová A, Racek J, Rajdl D, Stoicky F, Rokyta Z, Trefil L, Korotvik a M 2004 Letter to the Editor. 173(1) pp 147-148

Antibodies against oxidised LDL in infants.
Steinerova A, Racek J, Stozicky F, Tatzber F, Zima T, Setina R. 2001. Clin. Chem. 47(6) pp 1137-8

Autoantibodies against oxidised LDL in the first phase of life. Low density lipoproteins.
Steinerova A, Racek J, Stozicky F, Tatzber F, Lain A 1999.. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 37(9), pp 913-7

 

Animal Studies and Mechanistic Support

 

A casein variant in cow's milk is atherogenic.
Tailford KA, Berry CL, Thomas AC, Campbell JH. 2003 Atherosclerosis. 170(1):13-9.

Casein-derived peptides can promote human LDL (low-density lipoproteins) oxidation by a peroxidase- dependent & metal-independent process.
Torreilles J & Guerin MC. 1995. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil 189(5):933-42

Antihypertensive effect of the peptides derived from casein by an extracellular proteinase from Lactobacillus helveticus CP790.
o Yamamoto N, Akino A, Takano T. J Dairy Sci. 1994 Apr;77(4)917-22