Beta casein peptides linked to symptoms of neurological conditions
Human Studies

Post-weaning A1/A2 β-casein milk intake modulates depressive-like behavior, brain μ-opioid receptors, and the metabolome of rats. 

Osman A, Zuffa S, Walton G, Fagbodun E, Zanos P, Georgiou P, et al. iScience. 2021;24(9):103048.

Opioid system influences gut-brain axis: Dysbiosis and related alterations.

Rueda-Ruzafa L, Cruz F, Cardona D, Hone AJ, Molina-Torres G, Sánchez-Labraca N, et al. Pharmacol Res. 2020;159:104928.

Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows' milk.

Jianqin S, Leiming X, Lu X, Yelland GW, Ni J, Clarke AJ.

Nutr J. 2016 Apr 2;15:35. doi: 10.1186/s12937-016-0147-z. Erratum in: Nutr J. 2016;15(1):45.

Clinical evaluation of glutathione concentrations after consumption of milk containing different subtypes of β-casein: results from a randomized, cross-over clinical trial.

Deth R, Clarke A, Ni J, Trivedi M. Nutrition journal. 2015;15(1):1-6.

beta-Casomorphins-7 in infants on different type of feeding and different levels of psychomotor development.
Kost NV, Sokolov CO, Kurasova CO, Dmitriev AD, Tarakanova JN, Gabaeva CE, Zolotarev YA, Dadayan CA, Grachev SA, Korneeva CI, Mikheeva IG, Zozulya CA. 2009 Peptides 30(10):1854-60

Autism and urinary exogenous neuropeptides: development of an online SPE–HPLC–tandem mass spectrometry method to test the opioid excess theory.
Dettmer K, Hanna D, Whetstone P, Hansen R, Hammock BD. 2007. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. (Advance online publication May 2007.)

Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amongst the chaff?
Christison GW, Ivany K. 2006. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 27(2Suppl):S162–171.

The gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: results of a preliminary double blind clinical trial.
Elder JH, Shankar M, Shuster J, Theriaque D, Burns S, Sherrill L. 2006. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 36(3):413 420.

A randomised, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes.
Knivsberg AM, Reichelt KL, Høien T, Nødland M. (2002). Nutritional Neuroscience 5(4):251-61hin-Dusting J, Shennan J, Jones E, Williams C, Kingwell B, Dart A. (2006) Br J Nutr. 95(1):136-44

Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature of the discovered urine peptides?
Reichelt KL, Knivsberg AM. (2003) Nutritional Neuroscience 6(1):19-28.

Milk containing beta-casein with proline at position 67 does not aggravate neurological disorders.
Crawford RA, Boland MJ, Norris CS, Hill JP, Fenwick RM. 2002, PCT WO0219832.

Reports on dietary intervention in autistic disorders.
Knivsber AM, Reichelt KL, Nodland M. (2001). Nutritional Neuroscience. 4(1):25-37

Autism and Schizophrenia: Intestinal Disorders.
Cade R et al. (2000) Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72.

Influence of candidate polymorphisms on the dipeptidyl peptidase IV and μ-opioid receptor genes expression in aspect of the β-casomorphin-7 modulation functions in autism.
Cieślińska A, Sienkiewicz-Szłapka E, Wasilewska J, Fiedorowicz E, Chwała B, Moszyńska-Dumara M, et al. Peptides. 2015;65:6-11.

Epigenetic effects of casein-derived opioid peptides in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells Trivedi MS1, Hodgson NW2, Walker SJ3, Trooskens G4, Nair V1, Deth RC1
Nutr Metab (Lond). 2015 Dec 9;12:54. 

[Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autism]
Wasilewska J, Jarocka-Cyrta E, Kaczmarski M. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009;27(157):40-3.

 

Animal Studies and Mechanistic Support

ß-Casomorphin Induces Fos-Like Immunoreactivity in Discrete Brain Regions Relevant to Schizophrenia and Autism.
Zhongjie Sun, J. Robert Cade, Melvin J. Fregly, R. Malcolm Privette. University of Florida, USA. Autism, Vol. 3, No. 1, 67-83 (1999).

Rotational behaviour produced by intranigral injections of bovine and human beta-casomorphins in rats.
Herrera-Marschitz M, Terenius L, Grehn L, Ungerstedt U.. 1989. Psychopharmacology (Berl).99(3):357-61

In vitro penetration of des-tyrosine1-D-phenylalanine3-beta-casomorphin across the blood-brain barrier.
Stark H, Van Bree JB, de Boer AG, Jaehde U, Breimer DD. (1992) Peptides. 13(1):47-51.

Saturable transport of peptides across the blood-brain barrier.
Banks WA, Kastin AJ. (1987) Life Sci. 41(11):1319-38.

Behavioral effects of food-derived opioid-like peptides in rodents: Implications for schizophrenia?
Lister J1, Fletcher PJ2, Nobrega JN3, Remington G4. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 Jul;134:70-8.